Passage 1 2016全国卷Ⅰ，10分 词数：298
Secret codes （密码） keep messages private. Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer.
People have used secret codes for thousands of years. 1 Code breaking never lags （落后） far behind code making. The science of creating and reading coded messages is called cryptography.
There are three main types of cryptography. 2 For example, the first letters of "My elephant eats too many eels" spell out the hidden message "Meet me."
3 You might represent each letter with a number, for example. Let's number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26. If we substitute a number for each letter, the message "Meet me" would read "13 5 5 20 13 5."
A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book. 4 For example, "bridge" might stand for "meet" and "out" might stand for "me." The message "Bridge out" would actually mean "Meet me." 5 However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently.
A. It is very hard to break a code without the code book.
B. In any language, some letters are used more than others.
C. Only people who know the keyword can read the message.
D. As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them.
E. You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out.
F. With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words.
G. Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet.
Passage 2 2016全国卷Ⅱ，10分 词数：320
A garden that's just right for you
Have you ever visited a garden that seemed just right for you, where the atmosphere of the garden appeared to total more than the sum（总和） of its parts? 1 . But it doesn't happen by accident. It starts with looking inside yourself and understanding who you are with respect to the natural world and how you approach the gardening process.
Some people may think that a garden is no more than plants, flowers, patterns and masses of color. Others are concerned about using gardening methods that require less water and fewer fertilizers （肥料）. 3 . However, there are a number of other reasons that might explain why you want to garden. One of them comes from our earliest years.
●Recall（回忆）your childhood memories
Our model of what a garden should be often goes back to childhood. Grandma's rose garden and Dad's vegetable garden might be good or bad, but that's not what's important. 4 — how being in those gardens made us feel. If you'd like to build a powerful bond with your garden, start by taking some time to recall the gardens of your youth. 5 . Then go outside and work out a plan to translate your childhood memories into your grown-up garden. Have fun.
A. Know why you garden
B. Find a good place for your own garden
C. It's our experience of the garden that matters
D. It's delightful to see so many beautiful flowers
E. Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants
F. You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too
G. For each of those gardens, write down the strongest memory you have
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